Part 3The source of the Reefkeepers FAQ's is available here.
6.0 General Catalogs
Here is a list of non-aquarium related catalogs that have items
that may be of use to the serious aquarist and DIYer.
- AIN Plastics 1-800-431-2451
- A nationwide plastic supplier. They have about a dozen outlets and also ship orders. The catalog contains info and specs on many types of plastics that are useful for DIY aquarium projects. They have a $50 minimum order.
- C.F. Bowman & Co.
38 Addington Court,
East Brunswick, NJ 08816;
PH (908) 390-6436,
FX (908) 390-6438
C.F. Bowman & Co. I heard of by e-mail, but I later noticed their ad in FAMA. Their prices on acrylic tubing look very good, at least; a 60" long 6" od 1/8" wall clear cast acrylic tube is $35.75, which is about 60% of what I paid. I didn't find extruded tube, but they do say to call for items not listed. They are ostensibly wholesale only, so you may need to give a company name. They also have a $50 minimum order.
- C and H Sales Company
P.O. Box 5356,
Pasadena, CA 91117-9988; or
2176 E. Colorado Blvd,
Pasadena, CA 91107;
(213) 681-4925 (LA),
(818) 796-2628 (Pasadena),
C & H sells a wide collection of surplus and used equipment, ranging from fans, blowers, pumps (water, air, and otherwise), electronic components, motors (ac, dc, gearhead, stepper), solenoids, laboratory glassware, chart recorders, and tools through stranger things like gyrocompasses and a bit of defense electronics. Prices vary but are often quite good. For those in Southern California, their store has lots of odd items in quantities too small to include in the catalog.
- Cole-Palmer 1-800-323-4340 or 708 647-7600
- A huge catalog of test equipment and related industrial hardware. Like Markson, much is beyond the need and budget of a hobbiest but much is not. One of this FAQ's authors gets his lab sized DI cartridges from Cole-Palmer.
- Grainger Industrial 1-800-323-0620
- A nationwide chain of wholesalers of industrial needs. They have many stores in most states. There is probably one near you. They have a huge catalog of all sorts of things for DIYers, float-switches, ballasts, tools, you name it. They are a wholesaler so they technically won't sell to individuals. If you walk in (they have a counter just like any retail hardware store) and pay cash and give the name of a local company, they will sell to you. They just need to have the name of a company to put on the invoice because legally, they are a wholesaler. You don't need a tax number when you are paying cash. You can just go in and give them the name of the company where you work. It is probably a good idea to call ahead and see if the item you want is in stock.
- Hach - Products for Analysis 1-800-227-4224
- A catalog of testing items. This is the next step if you want better test kits than best kits normally available to the hobbiest (like Lamotte). Many of their products are not beyond the budget of a serious hobbiest. The also carry chemistry hardware like glassware.
- Herbach and Rademan 1-800-848-8001
A miscellaneous junk catalog with all sorts of electronic, mechanical,
and pumping widgets and other gadgets. Also, surplus junk like
A catalog of a variety of scientific equipment, mostly chemistry related. Many of their items are well beyond the need and budget of hobbiest but much of it is not.
- The Surplus Center 1-800-488-3407
- The phone number is 800-488-3407 or 402-474-4055. Their catalog has a large number of pages dedicated to hydraulic motors, pumps, and valves, which are useless to reef keepers because of their metal construction. However, the selection of electric motors is greater than that of the other surplus catalogs listed in this document, and some of these are finding their ways into experimental reef tank applications.
- United States Plastic Corp.
1390 Neubrecht Rd.,
Lima, Ohio 45801,
US Plastics sells a large selection of basic materials, plus an equally large assortment of various manufactured items made of plastic and some related items like fluid pumps. A few of the less common items which come to mind are clear PVC, plastic tanks up to a few thousand gallons, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene stock, flexible impeller pumps, and plastic welders. Of special interest to the diy'er would be items like the thickened acrylic cement (IMHO required for the best and strongest watertight acrylic joints), their rod, pipe, tube, and sheet stock in pvc and acrylic (where else do you find clear sheet pvc, or 90 degree sweep fittings for lower backpressure?), and the large food- quality drums for storing RO/DI water and mixed saltwater. The fun of finding stuff you didn't know existed shouldn't be under-rated either.
7.0 Some Questions and Answers
Q: Can I do this cheaply?A: No, relative to a similar size fish-only tank. (See cost estimate section)
Q: What if all I want to keep is Anemones?A: Water quality requirements drop some (Nitrates should remain under 20ppm NO3-). Lighting requirements are similar to full-reef tanks. The keeping of clownfish hosting anemones is coming under some justified ethical review. In nature these anemones are very long lived and have low successful reproduction rates. This compounds with typically short (a couple of years vs. potentially hundreds in the wild) lifetimes of captive anemones.
Q: What are good test kits?A: Tetra Hardness; Hach Calcium, Iron, Phosphate - (303) 669-3050; LaMotte Nitrate, Phosphate.
Hach Test kit details:
- Cat. No. 1457-01, Model HA-4P, $47.50, 100 test Dilute your sample 2:1 (Distilled:Saltwater). Each drop of titrant will equal 24mg/l of Ca++. Dilution saves titrant, and yields clearer results with sufficient accuracy.
- Cat. No. 22993-00, Model IR-21, $57.50, 100 test Very important if Macro Algae growth of primary interest.
- Cat. No. 2248-00, Model PO-19, $54.50, 100 test This test is 2.5 times more sensitive than the LaMotte test. The Hach is rated down to 0.02ppm, the LaMotte 0.05ppm.
- Cat. No. 22550-00, Model SI-7, $72.50, 100 test Not tested by any of the authors of this FAQ. Mentioned due to its availability and track record of Hach kits.
Q: What about cheaper kits?A: Kordon Ammonia, Nitrite, low-end Nitrate not bad for gross measurement, will need LaMotte Nitrate after water is in proper pollution range.
Q: Which Salt Mix is best?A: Instant Ocean works for many. Reef Crystal has had reported problems. Tropic Marin recommended by some. Coralife dissolves fast, can sometimes be found cheap, but is suspected of having higher borate concentrations than natural seawater.
Note that all 50 gallon bags of salt are not the same. Instant Ocean bags weigh in at 16lbs each, Coralife at 14.5lbs each. There is no magic here, at a given temperature, a bag of IO will make a solution of higher specific gravity (or more gallons at the same specific gravity) than a bag of Coralife will.
Q: How do I get rid of algae in my reef tank?A: There are three types of undesirable "algae" that commonly grow in reef tanks: long green strands of hair algae, short fuzzy green turf algae, and brown or red slime algae. Some people also consider fleshy macro alga, such as Caulerpa, to be a pest as they can overgrow and choke out soft corals. Desirable alga are the calcarious ones, both encrusting coralline alga in pink, purple, white, yellow, maroon and brown, and larger calcarious alga such as Halimeda. Some believe that any Macroalgae (Caulerpa, Halimeda, etc.) do not belong in Reef tanks.
"Slime" alga is actually cyanobacteria, not an alga. While its growth is often taken as a sign of poor water quality, its occurrence is part of the normal succession of a developing aquarium. It is uncommon for it not to occur at some point. With patience it will go away all on its own, but there are some things you can do to expedite the situation and help prevent it from recurring:
Chevron and Mimic tangs are known for having an appetite for cyanobacteria, as are baby queen conch and some hermit crabs. Adding such creatures should help a lot. So will innoculating the tank with some substrate from an established tank that is slime algae free. Apparently such tank harbor microfauna that consume or otherwise compete with the cyanobacteria. By innoculating a tank experiencing the problem with a small handful of substrate (a few tablespoons full will do) from an established tank without the problem, chances are good that you will get a starter colony of the desired microfauna. Use of activated carbon, strong protein skimming, active mechanical removal, strong water currents, and use of kalkwasser, will also help control its growth. As with most things associated with reef tanks, don't expect overnight results.
We strongly recommend against the use of any antibiotics, such as Maracyn, in reef tanks. As a reef aquarist, you spend a lot of effort and resources to build the bio-diversity of your tank up. Use of antibiotics is in direct conflict with that goal. At best, it's a temporary setback for the cynanobacteria, which, like most bacteria, will eventually build up a resistance to the antibiotic.
The best way to deal with hair and turf algae is not to let it grow to begin with. Keep the tank dark while it is initially cycling. Keep nitrates and phosphates as low as possible, and siphon out detritus. Keep herbivores in the tank. Snails (as many as 1 for every 2-3 gallons) will eat turf algae, and hair algae before it gets long. Tangs (especially Chevron, Mimic, and Yellow) and many small blennies will eat many forms of algae. If the tank does become overgrown, pull as much as possible out by hand. Reduce the light cycle, or if there is nothing light sensitive in the tank, leave it in darkness for a couple of weeks. Get more herbivores. Be sure to siphon out their droppings, which if left in the tank make great algae fertilizer. I have found that urchins can help recover an overgrown tank, although they will knock things over and eat any kind of algae, including desirable calcarious algaes. Large numbers of small hermit crabs (on the order of 1 per gallon) are very effective at removing and maintaining hair-algea free live rock - but do little for sidewalls and glass. As usual, a large bio-diversity with a mix of snail, tangs, crabs, and other herbivores will do the best job.
Two relatively new concepts are currently getting some attention in regards to hair algae control: 1) micrograzers and 2) long cycling. Some are beginning to believe that the small Copepods and other "meiograzers" have a substantial impact on the quantity of visible hair algae. The belief is that the hair algae is always there, it's simply mowed down by the meiograzers to the point where it's not typically visible. If this is true, then inclusion of some fish, like mandarins (which feed heavily on this size prey) would be inappropriate for reef tanks. As mentioned in the Live Rock section of this FAQ, the patience to allow a tank to cycle for 3-12 months prior to the addition of most fish (and any non-herbivore fish) may improve the stability of the tank in regards to hair algae. Although hair algae will normally bloom during this period, a compensating population of micrograzers will also bloom. Once the two come into balance, the normal routine of slowly adding additional life forms can commence.
Q: How do I treat a fish with ich in a reef tank?A: From Craig Bingman:
- I don't know of any medication for the treatment of marine ich that is safe to use in a reef tank.
- A pair of Lysmata cleaner shrimp typically can make a large difference, even in cases where there is an ectoparasite explosion caused by an incoming fish.
- If there are recurring problems of this sort in a reef aquarium, the problem is almost certainly a symptom of an underlying system performance or fish health issue.
- excessive temperature swings.
- low dissolved oxygen
- stagnant water conditions
- improper fish nutrition
Use of a quarantine tank is probably the best solution. A small
10 gallon tank with a heater, air-stone, and some live rock for
filtration should suffice. If treatment of a new fish is required,
it should be moved to a similar, but live-rockless, hospital tank
where medication can be administered. When doing a water change
from your main tank, consider using any clean collected water as
source water for your quarantine and hospital tanks. This will help
acclimate your new purchases to the water parameters associated with
their future home.
8.0 Book Review and Comments:
- The Reef Aquarium Vol. 1, A comprehensive Guide to the Identification and Care of Tropical Marine Invertebrates by J. Charles Delbeek and Julian Sprung. 1994. Ricordea Publishing, Florida ISBN 1-883693-12-8
- Introduces the beginner to the reef hobby in an understandable manner. All established reef tank techniques are discussed. Even the expert gets a comprehensive overview. Nice to read, up to date and a must for all serious reef hobbyists. Vol. 2 will follow.
- The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium Vol. 1 by Alf J. Nilsen and Svein Fossa. 1996. B. Schmettkamp-Verlag, Bornheim, Germany ISBN 3-928819-29-1
This Vol. 1 starts a book series that has all of what's needed to become the
backbone of the reef hobby. In addition to the information value, it presents
an enormous amount of brilliant picture materials. Some of the later Volumes
are already available in German and contain more than 1,000 colored pictures
per book. Vol. 1 gives a description of all techniques for setting up and
maintaining reef tanks. Should not be the very first book for the beginning
enthusiast, but is probably the best x-mas gift for any serious reef hobbyist.
Note that the English version and German versions of this series are in a different order with some different content:
English Volume 1 = German Volume 1 and Volume 2
English Volume 2 = German Volume 4 (Cnidaria)
English Volume 3 = German Volume 5 (unicellular animals, sponges, worms, molluscs)
English Volume 4 = German Volume 6 (other invertebrates)
English Volume 5 = German Volume 3 (fishes, with extensive rewriting)
- Giant Clams, A comprehensive Guide to the Identification and Care of Tridacnid Clams by Daniel Knop. 1996, Daehne-Verlag, Ettlingen, Germany ISBN 3-921684-23-4
- The first book dedicated to giant clams. Lots of information about tridacnid clams and basic information about setting up and maintaining a reef tank. Whoever likes clams will love the book.
- The Marine Aquarium Handbook, Beginner to Breeder by Martin A. Moe, Jr. 1982. Norns Publishing Company ISBN 0-939960-02-08
- An excellent first reference on many topics. Not reef oriented.
- The Marine Aquarium Reference, Systems and Invertebrates by Martin A. Moe, Jr. 1989. Green Turtle Publications, Florida ISBN 0-939960-05-2
- The place to begin looking for almost every topic. Discussion of filtration is exhaustive, though a bit spare on modern Berlin practice (is this still true in the new edition?). A must buy for every reefkeeper.
Advanced Reef Keeping I, A Comprehensive Guide to Setting up Your
by Albert J. Thiel
1989. Aardvark Press
- Small Reef Aquarium Basics, The Optimum Aquarium for the Reef Hobbyist by Albert J. Thiel 1989. Aardvark Press ISBN - 0945777-02-7
Some good information buried among dubious advice
and the most wretched editing ever conceived. His
filtration ideas are rather old-fashioned. This
guy sold the expensive equipment that he
recommends, so Caveat Emptor should be your motto.
Thiel advocates one particular way of maintaining reef aquaria. It's not the only way, and it may not be the best way, but it does work. The usual advice is for people to read his books, but to do so skeptically.
- Corals of the World, Biology and Field Guide by Dr. Elizabeth M. Wood 1983. T.F.H. Publications ISBN 0-87666-809-0 TFH# H-1049
- A good reference for anyone who intends to keep stony corals. Like other books not specifically written for the hobbyist, it does not discuss the care of corals. May be out of print.
- Dynamic Aquaria by Walter H. Adey and Karen Loveland. 1991 Academic Press, Inc. ISBN 0-12-043790-2
- This book addresses designing reef (and other) aquaria on ecological principles. The book is best known for its extensive coverage of the Algal Turf Scrubber method of water purification. The hobby remains skeptical of the use of algal scrubbers as the primary means of water purification on systems that maintain stony corals; see the scrubber section of this FAQ. However, text dealing with algal scrubbers is just a small portion of the book. Much of the space in the book is spent reviewing the established scientific literature on aquatic ecosystems, in language that the dedicated amateur aquarist can understand. The statements that the book makes *in the review sections* are well supported by citations to the scientific literature, and in this way the book provides a nice bridge to those who want to begin exploring the scientific literature. After reviewing a particular aspect of natural ecology, the authors discuss appropriate ways to model that aspect of ecology in a small, closed system. It is in these sections that the reader must be more careful, because the authors often do not distinguish what are widely established results and what are their unproven hypotheses. If read critically but with an open mind, the book offers a lot to serious hobbyists.
- The Reef Tank Owner's Manual by John H. Tullock October 10, 1990. Aardvark Press ISBN 0-945777-06-x
- Discussion of filtration is old-fashioned, similar to Thiel's books but somewhat more grammatical. Good discussions of individual animals and animal choices aimed at the beginning and intermediate reefkeeper.
Invertebrates: Tube-, Soft-, and Branching Corals
by Peter Wilkens / Johannes Birkholz
1986, Engelbert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal
- Invertebrates: Stone and False Corals, Colonial Anemones by Peter Wilkens 1990, Engelbert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal ISBN 3-921677-15-7
The authors' experience and reputation is vast. Unfortunately
production quality of the English translation is poor, but there is no
other comparable reference. A must buy for anyone intending to keep
Daehne-Verlag in Ettlingen, Germany, bought all the books from Pfreim Verlag upon Mr. Pfriem's retirement.
- Fishes for the Invertebrate Aquarium, 3rd ed. by Helmut Debelius 1989. Aquarium Systems
- (An absolutely fascinating speaker, BTW. If you ever get a chance to hear him speak, do so!) Quite a lot of good information on reef-compatible fishes.
- Armored Knights of the Sea
Absolutely fantastic shrimp book. Out of
print, gold if you can get your hand on it.
Corals of Australia and
by J.E.N. Veron.
Copyright 1986 The Australian Institute of Marine Science.
1993 University of Hawaii Press.
- The definitive reference book for the Indo-Pacific stony corals. The original is out of print and very difficult to find. A reprint run has recently been done.
- Living Corals by Douglas Faulkner & Richard Chesher 1979, Crown Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-517-53854-7
This is one of those big picture
books of corals, but it's the best
one I've ever seen. The photos are
all top-notch, most show large groupings
of a single species. The descriptions
are not with the pictures, which can be
disconcerting until you get used to it.
I believe this book is out-of-print, though I often find used copies (fairly cheap!) at a local bookstore.
- Marine Plants of the Caribbean, A Field Guide from Florida to Brazil by Diane Scullion Littler, Mark M. Littler, Katina E. Bucher,& James N. Norris 1989. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. ISBN 0-87474-607-8
- Quite a good reference book describing various species of algae that are found in the waters of the Caribbean.
- Seaweeds of Hawaii, A photographic Identification Guide by William H. Magruder and Jeffrey W. Hunt 1979. The Oriental Publishing Company ISBN 0-932596-12-6
- Another excellent reference identifying algae found around Hawaii. Out of print.
- The Manual of Marine Invertebrates by Martyn Haywood and Sue Wells 1989. Salamander Books Ltd., London ISBN 0-86101-474-X
- I'd recommend the Manual of Marine Invertebrates by Hayward. While this does not go into a great deal of detail on anything, it covers every class of inverts and is good for learning about what's on your live rock and the basics of care for different kinds of creatures. It contains quite a few mistakes, but is a good reference book nonetheless.
- Encyclopedia of Marine Inverts by Jerry Walls, (TFH, Neptune, NJ: 1988) ISBN 0-86622-141-7.
- [Compared to Manual of Marine Invertebrates by Hayward] and found that the later (Wall's book) appeared to have a lot more info. It isn't a great book from the aquarium point of view but does cover the basics of all the Phyla. It has a lot of color plates. I was able to identify a number of Live-Rock ReefCritters(tm) with it.
- Dr. Burgess's Atlas of Marine Aquarium Fishes by Dr. Warren E. Burgess, Dr. Herbert R. Axelrod, & Raymond E. Hunziker III 1988. T.F.H. Publications TFH# H-1100
- "The big picture book of fishes." Considered the first book to look marine fish up in. Second edition has been published.
- The Captive Reef: A Concise Guide to Reef Aquaria in the Home by Dana Riddle. 1995, Energy Savers Unlimited, Inc. ISBN 0-9640147-2-6
- This is a good starter book for the beginning reef aquarist. The subject of reef aquaria is treated in an easy to understand format targeted at the layman. While targeted at the layman there is some information in the text of interest to the intermediate and advanced aquarist, mostly in the form of charts and graphs. There is also a chapter on feeding corals that aquarist may find useful as a starting point for experimentation.
- Tropical Pacific Invertebrates: A Field Guild to the Marine Invertebrates Occuring on Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves by Patrick L. Colin & Charles Arneson. 1995, Coral Reef Press. ISBN 0-9645625-0-2
- This is a good reference book with lots of high quality color plates of tropical pacific invertebrates. The text is organized by phylum and each section starts with an introduction to that phylum. Color plates of many species in each phylum accompanied by short textual descriptions follow the introduction section. Many of the various invertebrates kept in aquaria are represented.
9.0 Useful Tables
C F 20.00 68.00 20.20 68.36 20.40 68.72 20.60 69.08 20.80 69.44 21.00 69.80 21.20 70.16 21.40 70.52 21.60 70.88 21.80 71.24 22.00 71.60 22.20 71.96 22.40 72.32 22.60 72.68 22.80 73.04 23.00 73.40 23.20 73.76 23.40 74.12 23.60 74.48 23.80 74.84 24.00 75.20 24.20 75.56 24.40 75.92 24.60 76.28 24.80 76.64 25.00 77.00 25.20 77.36 25.40 77.72 25.60 78.08 25.80 78.44 26.00 78.80 26.20 79.16 26.40 79.52 26.60 79.88 26.80 80.24 27.00 80.60 27.20 80.96 27.40 81.32 27.60 81.68 27.80 82.04 28.00 82.40 28.20 82.76 28.40 83.12 28.60 83.48 28.80 83.84 29.00 84.20 29.20 84.56 29.40 84.92 29.60 85.28 29.80 85.64 30.00 86.00
meq/l ppm KH CaCO3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 2.50 0.14 0.10 5.00 0.28 0.15 7.50 0.42 0.20 10.00 0.56 0.25 12.50 0.70 0.30 15.00 0.84 0.35 17.50 0.98 0.40 20.00 1.12 0.45 22.50 1.26 0.50 25.00 1.40 0.55 27.50 1.54 0.60 30.00 1.68 0.65 32.50 1.82 0.70 35.00 1.96 0.75 37.50 2.10 0.80 40.00 2.24 0.85 42.50 2.38 0.90 45.00 2.52 0.95 47.50 2.66 1.00 50.00 2.80 1.10 55.00 3.08 1.20 60.00 3.36 1.30 65.00 3.64 1.40 70.00 3.92 1.50 75.00 4.20 1.60 80.00 4.48 1.70 85.00 4.76 1.80 90.00 5.04 1.90 95.00 5.32 2.00 100.00 5.60 2.10 105.00 5.88 2.20 110.00 6.16 2.30 115.00 6.44 2.40 120.00 6.72 2.50 125.00 7.00 2.60 130.00 7.28 2.70 135.00 7.56 2.80 140.00 7.84 2.90 145.00 8.12 3.00 150.00 8.40 3.10 155.00 8.68 3.20 160.00 8.96 3.30 165.00 9.24 3.40 170.00 9.52 3.50 175.00 9.80 3.60 180.00 10.08 3.70 185.00 10.36 3.80 190.00 10.64 3.90 195.00 10.92 4.00 200.00 11.20 4.20 210.00 11.76 4.40 220.00 12.32 4.60 230.00 12.88 4.80 240.00 13.44 5.00 250.00 14.00 (1) (50) (2.8)
Nitrogen as Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate
N N NH3 NO2 NO3 ppm uM/l mg/l mg/l mg/l 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.005 0.357 0.006 0.016 0.022 0.010 0.714 0.012 0.033 0.044 0.015 1.071 0.018 0.049 0.066 0.020 1.429 0.024 0.066 0.089 0.025 1.786 0.030 0.082 0.111 0.030 2.143 0.036 0.099 0.133 0.035 2.500 0.043 0.115 0.155 0.040 2.857 0.049 0.131 0.177 0.045 3.214 0.055 0.148 0.199 0.050 3.571 0.061 0.164 0.221 0.055 3.929 0.067 0.181 0.244 0.060 4.286 0.073 0.197 0.266 0.065 4.643 0.079 0.214 0.288 0.070 5.000 0.085 0.230 0.310 0.075 5.357 0.091 0.246 0.332 0.080 5.714 0.097 0.263 0.354 0.085 6.071 0.103 0.279 0.376 0.090 6.429 0.109 0.296 0.399 0.095 6.786 0.115 0.312 0.421 0.100 7.143 0.121 0.329 0.443 0.15 10.71 0.18 0.49 0.66 0.20 14.29 0.24 0.66 0.89 0.25 17.86 0.30 0.82 1.11 0.30 21.43 0.36 0.99 1.33 0.35 25.00 0.42 1.15 1.55 0.40 28.57 0.49 1.31 1.77 0.45 32.14 0.55 1.48 1.99 0.50 35.71 0.61 1.64 2.21 0.55 39.29 0.67 1.81 2.44 0.60 42.86 0.73 1.97 2.66 0.65 46.43 0.79 2.14 2.88 0.70 50.00 0.85 2.30 3.10 0.75 53.57 0.91 2.46 3.32 0.80 57.14 0.97 2.63 3.54 0.85 60.71 1.03 2.79 3.76 0.90 64.29 1.09 2.96 3.99 0.95 67.86 1.15 3.12 4.21 1.00 71.43 1.21 3.29 4.43 1.50 107.14 1.82 4.93 6.64 2.00 142.86 2.43 6.57 8.86 2.50 178.57 3.04 8.21 11.07 3.00 214.29 3.64 9.86 13.29 3.50 250.00 4.25 11.50 15.50 4.00 285.71 4.86 13.14 17.71 4.50 321.43 5.46 14.79 19.93 5.00 357.14 6.07 16.43 22.14 5.50 392.86 6.68 18.07 24.36 6.00 428.57 7.29 19.71 26.57 6.50 464.29 7.89 21.36 28.79 7.00 500.00 8.50 23.00 31.00 7.50 535.71 9.11 24.64 33.21 8.00 571.43 9.71 26.29 35.43 8.50 607.14 10.32 27.93 37.64 9.00 642.86 10.93 29.57 39.86 9.50 678.57 11.54 31.21 42.07 10.00 714.29 12.14 32.86 44.29 (1) (1000/14)(17/14)(46/14)(62/14)
Ca CaCO3 dH mg/l ppm 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 12.50 0.70 10.00 25.00 1.40 15.00 37.50 2.10 20.00 50.00 2.80 25.00 62.50 3.50 30.00 75.00 4.20 35.00 87.50 4.90 40.00 100.00 5.60 45.00 112.50 6.30 50.00 125.00 7.00 55.00 137.50 7.70 60.00 150.00 8.40 65.00 162.50 9.10 70.00 175.00 9.80 75.00 187.50 10.50 80.00 200.00 11.20 85.00 212.50 11.90 90.00 225.00 12.60 95.00 237.50 13.30 100.00 250.00 14.00 110.00 275.00 15.40 120.00 300.00 16.80 130.00 325.00 18.20 140.00 350.00 19.60 150.00 375.00 21.00 160.00 400.00 22.40 170.00 425.00 23.80 180.00 450.00 25.20 190.00 475.00 26.60 200.00 500.00 28.00 210.00 525.00 29.40 220.00 550.00 30.80 230.00 575.00 32.20 240.00 600.00 33.60 250.00 625.00 35.00 260.00 650.00 36.40 270.00 675.00 37.80 280.00 700.00 39.20 290.00 725.00 40.60 300.00 750.00 42.00 320.00 800.00 44.80 340.00 850.00 47.60 360.00 900.00 50.40 380.00 950.00 53.20 400.00 1000.00 56.00 420.00 1050.00 58.80 440.00 1100.00 61.60 460.00 1150.00 64.40 480.00 1200.00 67.20 500.00 1250.00 70.00 (1) (100/40)(56/400)
10.0 Credits:The original document was created by the joint effort of many individual people, sharing a common interest in "Reef Keeping". Those who allowed their names published were:
- Patti Beadles
- Craig Bingman
- Kevin Carpenter (editor)
- Gary Dudley
- Frank M. Greco
- Ken Koellner
- Dustin Laurence (FTP site sponsor)
- Teresa Moore
- David O'Brien
- Chris Paris
- Paul Prior
- Keith Rogers
- Mark Rosenstein
- Dave Sheehy (proof reader)
- Greg Smith
- Spass Stoiantschewsky
- Anthony Tse
- Steve Tyree
- John Ward (FTP site sponsor)